As we shift from a linear to a nonlinear economic model the circular economy is enabling an ocean of new value opportunities. Value is shifting from forming part of a linear value chain to all of the space around it; closing loops, looking at synergies between industries, connecting end users, managing full lifecycle and networks of collaboration.
What is an economy? Is it things, stuff like cars, houses, washing machines and computers? Or is it services? The function of those things, payment services, cleaning services, heating, communication etc. We might say it is both. All the products around us deliver some functionality,
Industrial ecology has arisen over the past few decades as the study to coupled environmental and industrial systems, offering a systems-based approach to modelling, designing and managing industrial systems in relation to the natural environment.