Schemata

2017-07-19T11:17:14+00:00

Schemata Encyclopedias may be thought of as examples of schemata. They provide a structured and coherent representation to a certain domain of interest. A schema is a conceptual pattern or structure that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.View Source The term derives from psychology but is used within complex [...]

Simple Rules

2017-07-19T11:17:56+00:00

Simple Rules Ant colonies are often cited examples of how agents governed by simple rules can give rise to complex emergent phenomena One of the key premises of complex systems theory is that global coordination and complex behavior can emerge out of very simple rules governing the interaction between agents on the local [...]

Cellular Automaton

2017-07-19T11:18:49+00:00

Cellular Automaton Cellular automaton can produce patterns such as those seen on the side of this sea shell Cellular automata are algorithmic models that use computation to iterate on very simple rules. In so doing, these very simple rules can create complex emergent phenomena through the interaction between agents as they evolve over [...]

Feedback & Externalities

2017-07-19T11:20:15+00:00

Feedback & Externalities Traffic jams, like this one seen above, are the product of positive feedback loops where more begets more A feedback loop defines a relationship of interdependency between two or more components where the change in state of one element affects that of another, with this effect then, in turn, feeding [...]

Cooperation & Competition

2017-07-19T11:21:10+00:00

Cooperation & Competition Young athletes train, illustrating a form of cooperative synchronized behavior A core premise of complexity theory is that global patterns in complex systems emerge out of the synchronization between the states of elements on the local level.View Source Whereas the terms synchronization or desynchronization are generic to any type [...]

Evolution

2017-07-19T11:22:07+00:00

Evolution Evolution is a gradual process that takes place over the course of several life-cycles of a population of agents Evolution is a process of adaptation that operates on the macro-level of a system. Adaptation is the capacity to generate a response to some change within the environment. Evolution is this same process [...]

Robustness & Resilience

2017-07-19T11:22:55+00:00

Robustness & Resilience The human body has a certain environmental temperature within which it can maintain its structure and functionality, but outside of these critical parameters, the system will disintegrate‚Ä®. Resilience is the capacity of a system to maintain functionality in the face of some alteration within the system's environment.View Source All systems [...]

Self-Organization Far-From-Equilibrium

2017-07-19T11:23:51+00:00

Self-Organization Far-From-Equilibrium Hurricanes are examples of a system far-from-equilibrium as they are driven by runaway positive feedback loops Far-from-equilibrium self-organization is a hypothesis that describes the process of self-organization as taking place at a critical phase transition space between order and chaos when the system is far from its equilibrium.View Source  The essence [...]

Self-Organization & Thermodynamics

2017-07-19T11:24:44+00:00

Self-Organization & Thermodynamics The sunflower with its two counter rotating spirals is an example of the extraordinary patterns of organization that scientists wish to explain Self-organization can be defined as the spontaneous creation of a globally coherent pattern out of local interactions.View Source As such self-organization explores a new approach to understanding [...]

Fitness Landscapes

2017-07-19T11:25:33+00:00

Fitness Landscapes Visualization of a NK fitness landscape. The arrows represent various mutational paths that the population could follow while evolving on the fitness landscape - image courtesy of Randy Olson. A fitness landscape - also called an adaptive landscape - is a model that comes from biology where it is used to [...]