Entropy is a measurement of the number of degrees of freedom a system has. When the entropy goes up it requires more information to describe the state of the system and it would require work to be done in order to reconfigure the system into its original ordered state.
This book is an introduction to the key concepts within systems theory. Systems theory has been defined as an approach that attempts to balance holistic and analytical reasoning. In systems theory, it is argued that the only way to
This course is an overview of the foundational concepts within system theory, in particular, it is focused on conveying what we call the systems paradigm that is the basic overarching principles that are common to all areas of systems thinking and theory. During the course we will be focused on systems thinking as a way of seeing the whole and the parts, seeing nonlinear causes instead of simple linear cause and effect, seeing dynamic patterns instead of flash shots of events.
Newtonian Paradigm The Newtonian paradigm, also called the clockwork universe, is the scientific paradigm that supports modern science being characterized by its materialistic and atomistic vision of isolated inert objects(matter) that interact in a linear cause and effect fashion, giving a vision of the universe that is analogs to a big machine, or clock which is [...]
Systems Paradigm A paradigm is a standard, perspective, or set of ideasView Source that form a worldview underlying the theories and methodology of a particular domain.View Source The systems paradigm, is then a coherent set of basic concepts and axioms that form the worldview or perspective underlying systems theory. All reasoning and scientific [...]
Integration Integration means the bringing together or connecting of things. It is the act of combining or adding parts to make a unified whole.View Source As such it can be defined as the opposite from disintegration or differentiation, which means to "set apart."View Source The overall degree of integration to a system can [...]
Interdependence Interdependence is one of the central concepts within systems theory in that most definitions for a system involve the idea of interdependency between a set of parts.View Source Indeed the idea of interdependency is often the central concept that is used to define a system, in that without interdependency between parts there is no [...]
Relational Paradigm Relational thinking is a way of seeing the world that places greater precedence on the relations or connections between entities rather than simply looking at those entities as discrete. The main overarching principle in the relational paradigm is a shift in one's perception from seeing a fixed world, made up of things and [...]
Integration and Differentiation Integration and differentiation represent two different stages during the evolution of a system. Differentiation is the process whereby an integrated system becomes divided up into more specialized, well-defined parts. Integration is the process whereby diverse elements become combined or synthesized into a whole system. The process of evolution involves a dynamic interplay [...]