## Process Thinking

2018-06-19T20:26:05+00:00

Process Thinking Process thinking or dynamic thinking is a way of interpreting events in terms of processes of change that create them. It focuses on the nonlinear dynamics of change over time that create certain patterns out of which events emerge. Process thinking involves considering phenomena dynamically â€“ concerning movement, activity, events, change and temporal [...]

Process Thinking 2018-06-19T20:26:05+00:00

2018-06-19T20:26:14+00:00

Paradigm Shift The term paradigm describes a set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitute a way of viewing the world for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline.View Source The term paradigm shift is used to describe a fundamental and major transformation in the established paradigm of a community. [...]

## Nonlinear Causality

2018-06-19T20:26:34+00:00

Nonlinear Causality Nonlinear causality is a form of causation where cause and effect can flow in a bidirectional fashion between two or more elements or systems. The essential characteristic of nonlinear causality is the idea of feedback that an effect can create a cause, but equally, this cause can then feedback to create an effect [...]

Nonlinear Causality 2018-06-19T20:26:34+00:00

## Linear Causality

2018-06-19T20:26:43+00:00

LinearÂ Causality Linear causality is a conception of causation as following a single, linear direction, i.e. event A causes effect B, while B has no demonstrable effect on A. This unidirectional causation may be in space as well as time, i.e. only incidents in the past can affect current events. Likewise, linear causality implies a unidirectional [...]

Linear Causality 2018-06-19T20:26:43+00:00

## Causality

2018-06-19T20:26:52+00:00

Causality Causality describes a relationship that exists between two or more things where a change in one thing - or set of things - causes a change in another.View Source The essence of causality is a phenomenon being dependent on some other effect. As such causality is a connection or linkage between states or [...]

Causality 2018-06-19T20:26:52+00:00

## Formal Models

2018-06-19T20:27:04+00:00

Models A model is an abstract, typically compact, representation of some phenomena that enables us to conceptualize and communicate its basic structure and dynamics in a coherent form. A central characteristic of models and modeling of all kind is the use of abstraction. Whereby various levels of detail are removed from the original empirical phenomena [...]

Formal Models 2018-06-19T20:27:04+00:00

## Abstraction

2018-06-19T20:27:12+00:00

Abstraction Abstraction is the process of considering something independently of its associations or attributes.View Source The use of abstraction involves removing successive layers of detail from a representation in order to capture only the essential features that are generic to all entities of that kind and independent of their specific form. Abstraction involves the [...]

Abstraction 2018-06-19T20:27:12+00:00

## Instantiation

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Instantiation Instantiation is the process of transforming an abstraction into a concrete example.View Source An abstraction is any entity that exists independently of context or specific attributes. The process of instantiation is one of taking an abstraction and giving it detailed form within some "real" context. This process involves specification, whereby the generic features [...]

Instantiation 2018-06-19T20:27:20+00:00

## Synthesis

2016-07-30T14:16:02+00:00

Synthesis Synthetic reasoning involves combining disparate ideas to create a more abstract whole that integrates their divergent characteristics The word synthesis comes from the Greek word meaning "to put together."View Source Synthesis is a process of reasoning whereby we put disparate parts together to gain an understanding of the whole. Synthesis can [...]

Synthesis 2016-07-30T14:16:02+00:00

## Encapsulation

2018-06-19T20:27:53+00:00

Encapsulation Encapsulation means to cover or surround something in order to show or express the main idea or quality of it in a concise fashion.View Source Encapsulation is a central part of modeling and designing systems in that it enables abstraction. Through encapsulation, the internal workings of any component part of a system can [...]

Encapsulation 2018-06-19T20:27:53+00:00