Systems Ecology Systems ecology can be understood as the application of systems theory to the study of ecology, as it studies the interaction between organisms and their abiotic environment through systems modeling. [...]
An ecological network is a map of the interaction between the biotic(and possibly abiotic) elements of an ecosystem, the classical example being a food web which is a network capturing the trophic interactions between the various species.
Industrial ecology has arisen over the past few decades as the study to coupled environmental and industrial systems, offering a systems-based approach to modelling, designing and managing industrial systems in relation to the natural environment.
Earth systems science is the interdisciplinary study of Earth as a complex system composed of multiple physical and biological processes that interact within cycles or spheres to give rise to the overall state of the earth as an entirety.