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Strongly emergent processes are ones that cannot be derived, even in theory, from a full understanding of the properties and interactions of the component parts on the lower level. The higher level emergent properties and features must then be understood as a whole in terms of the macro-level dynamics without referring to micro-level mechanics. Equally strong emergence typically implies some form of downward causation where the macro-level to the system exerts a downward effect shaping the state and functioning of the parts on the micro-level.