Complex engineered systems are large networks of technologies composed of many diverse subsystems, densely interacting in a nonlinear fashion to create a multi-tiered network system that evolves over time. These more complex systems of technology differ from our traditional linear technologies in that they are open systems, composed of many autonomous components without any centralized locus of control or design. Some examples of complex engineered systems may include airports, logistics networks, telecommunications networks, enterprise information systems, IoT platforms and the internet itself, hospitals and healthcare systems, the global air transportation network and all types of infrastructure systems from mass transit to water supplies.